Vertical container for storing loose solids. Widely used in industrial and agricultural production and storage and transportation sectors. Silo can save storage land, help to implement loading and unloading mechanization and automation, reduce labor intensity, improve labor productivity, reduce the loss of materials and dust pollution of the environment.
Long-term storage of grain and feed silos have fumigation and insect control requirements, and should be airtight. The dust of grain and certain chemicals have the danger of explosion, and explosion-proof measures should be taken. Materials are fed into the silo from the inlet at the top of the silo, and generally unloaded from the hopper at the bottom of the silo by the self-weight of the materials. Coal, ore and cement, etc. due to its large internal friction angle, often arch, difficult to unload automatically, must be added to help unloading device.
Shape and arrangement
The plane shape of silo has square, rectangle, polygon and circle. The wall of round silo is reasonably stressed, and the material is economical, so it is most widely used. When the stored material species is single or the storage capacity is small, it is arranged with independent silo or single column. When the stored materials are more varieties or storage capacity is large, it is arranged as a group silo (Figure 1). The space between silos is called star silo, which can also be used.
The total length of cylindrical silo is generally not more than 60 meters, and the total length of square silo is generally not more than 40 meters. When the length of group silo is too large or the force and foundation situation is complicated, appropriate measures should be taken, such as setting expansion joints to eliminate the contraction stress of concrete and the influence of temperature stress; setting settlement joints to avoid the influence of uneven settlement caused by factors such as large load difference between different parts of the structure itself or obvious difference in bearing capacity of foundation soil; setting seismic joints to reduce earthquake damage, etc.
Silos are constructed of masonry, wood, reinforced concrete or steel. Small silos can also be made of plastic. Masonry material has the characteristics of convenient material, low cost and easy construction, so it is widely used. The masonry silo with large height is equipped with ring reinforcement or reinforced concrete ring beam every certain height to bear the ring tension. The diameter of masonry silos is mostly below 6 meters, and the height does not exceed 20 meters. Reinforced concrete is used for larger capacity silos, the diameter of which can be up to 12 meters in group silos and more than 18 meters in independent silos, and its height is generally about 35 meters according to the capacity and economic efficiency of lifting equipment, and the cement silo with airflow conveying into the silo can be up to 50 meters (Figure 2). Steel is generally used only to make funnels for silos.
Post time: Jul-08-2022